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XIAOTIME, 21 January 2013: TUNAY NA KASAYSAYAN SA LIKOD NG CAVITE MUTINY

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment yesterday, 21 January 2013, at News@1 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Fort San Felipe Neri sa Cavite, pinagganapan ng Motin de Cavite.  Mula kay Arnaldo Dumindin.

Fort San Felipe Neri sa Cavite, pinagganapan ng Motin de Cavite. Mula kay Arnaldo Dumindin.

21 January 2013, Monday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CTt3X3tqj90

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  Ang episode na ito ay handog sa inyo ng The Grand L Square & Residences.  Kung kayo ay mapadpad sa Tarlac City, tumuloy sa L Square Hotel.  Where comfort and affordability spends here.

01 L Square Hotel.  Where comfort and affordability spends here

Happy fiesta sa aking bayang sinilangan, Tarlac City kahapon January 20.  Gayundin, 141 years ago kahapon, January 20, 1872, naganap ang tinatawag na Motín de Cavite.  Huh???  What’s that Pokemón???  Ito po ang Cavite Mutiny na naging dahilan ng pagbitay sa garote sa tatlong pareng martir Mariano Gomes, José Burgos at Jacinto Zamora na ikinagimbal ng bayan.

Motin de Cavite, mula sa Philippine Almanac.

Motin de Cavite, mula sa Philippine Almanac.

Sa mga susunod na taon, ang katagang Mil Otso Sientos Sitenta y Dos ay ikinanginginig ng marami at pinag-uusapang sambitin.  Ganito ang epekto ng naging tugon ng mga Espanyol sa isang nabigong pag-aalsa.  Ayon sa ating mga teksbuk, pinangunahan ito ng isang Sarhento Francisco Lamadrid na sinalakay ang Fort San Felipe Neri sa Cavite gamit ang ilang sundalong Espanyol.

Sarhento Francisco Lamadrid.  Mula sa Philippine Almanac.

Sarhento Francisco Lamadrid. Mula sa Philippine Almanac.

Ito ay dahil daw sa pagtanggal ng pribilehiyo ng mga nagtatrabaho sa arsenal ng Cavite sa hindi pagbabayad ng tributo o buwis at sa hindi paglahok sa sapilitang paggawa.  Matagumapy na nakuha ng mga rebelde ang Fuerza ngunit matapos ang isang oras nagapi na ito ng mga pwersang Espanyol.  Namatay ang mga pinuno ang rebelyon at ang pinaghihinalaan na mga kasangkot ay itinapon sa Marianas o Guam [at iba pang lugar], o di kaya ay binitay.  Ngunit, isang bagong pag-aaral ang inilathala ng Heswitang Historyador na si John Schumacher batay sa isang bagong tuklas na dokumento, isang ulat, na isinulat mismo ni Gobernador Heneral Rafael de Izquierdo, na siyang babago sa mga kaalaman natin ukol sa rebelyon.

Padre John Schumacher.  Mula sa Philippine Studies.

Padre John Schumacher. Mula sa Philippine Studies.

Hindi lamang pala pagbabayad ng tributo at sapilitang paggawa ng mga trabahador ng arsenal ang dahilan ng pag-aalsa tulad ng unang nabanggit.  Ni wala ngang nagmula sa arsenal sa mga nag-alsa.  Isa pala sana itong malawakang pag-aalsa na naglalayong makipaghiwalay ang Pilipinas sa Espanya!  Kasama sa plano ang kasabay sana na paglusob sa Fort Santiago sa Maynila.  Matapos nito ay pagdedeklara ng independencia at pagpatay ng lahat ng mga Espanyol na hindi magmamakaawa sa kanila.  Nabigo ang pag-aalsa dahil sa napaghandaan na rin ni Izquierdo ang pag-aalsa dahil sa ilang mga sulat na walang lagda na nagsusumbong sa mga plano at nang makumbinsi niya ang ilan sa mga sasama sana sa rebelyon na huwag nang tumuloy.  Ang mga tunay na utak ng pag-aalsa ay hindi ang tatlong paring martir na binitay kundi ang mga mason na sina Máximo Inocencio, Crisanto de los Reyes, at Enrique Paraíso na kasama sa mga naipatapon lamang.

Sina Crisanto de los Reyes, Máximo Inocencio at Enrique Paraíso habang ipinapatapon matapos ang Motin de Cavite.  Larawang-guhit mula sa Geronimo Benernger de los Reyes (GBR) Museum.

Sina Crisanto de los Reyes, Máximo Inocencio at Enrique Paraíso habang ipinapatapon matapos ang Motin de Cavite. Larawang-guhit mula sa Geronimo Benernger de los Reyes (GBR) Museum.

Bakit kaya hindi rin sila binitay?  Suspetsa ni Schumacher, ito ay dahil kapwa mason ang tatlong utak ng rebelyon at ang Gobernador Heneral!  Maaari ring ginamit ng mga nag-organisa ng pag-aalsa na si Francisco Zaldúa, na ginarote ng mga Espanyol kasama ang tatong pari matapos ang isang buwan, ay ginamit ang pangalan ni Burgos upang makapanghikayat.

Monumento para kina Máximo Inocencio, Crisanto de los Reyes, at Enrique Paraíso sa Geronimo Benernger de los Reyes (GBR) Museum, Cavite.  Kuha ni Xiao Chua.

Monumento para kina Máximo Inocencio, Crisanto de los Reyes, at Enrique Paraíso sa Geronimo Benernger de los Reyes (GBR) Museum, Cavite. Kuha ni Xiao Chua.

Anuman ang nangyari, ang mga pangyayari sa Cavite at ang pagbitay sa mga pari ng 1872 ay tatatak sa isipan ng maraming mga Pilipino at isa sa mga binabanggit na salik na pagnanais ng kalayaan mula sa mga kolonisador.  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

Pinagsususpetsahang composite na larawan nina Padre Mariano Gomes, Padre Jacinto Zamora at Padre Jose Burgos.

Pinagsususpetsahang composite na larawan nina Padre Mariano Gomes, Padre Jacinto Zamora at Padre Jose Burgos.

(Pook Amorsolo, UP Diliman, 19 January 2013)

WHO IS THAT POKEMÓN? F. Tañedo and Other Street Names in Tarlac City (To Celebrate Tarlac City Fiesta, 20 January 2013)

Michael Charleston “Xiao” B. Chua [1]

ISLAND STUDIO classic shot of Mt. Pinatubo's first major eruption as seen from F. Tañedo Street in Tarlac, Tarlac, 12 June 1991.

ISLAND STUDIO classic shot of Mt. Pinatubo’s first major eruption as seen from F. Tañedo Street in Tarlac, Tarlac, 12 June 1991.

(First published at Tarlac Star Monitor, 22-28 May 2012, 5)

Street names are part of our everyday lives.  Despite that, or even because of that, we just pass them by day by day oblivious of whom or what those street names represent.  But street names reflect history.  That is why one of the best history books on the City of Manila is Luning B. Ira and Isagani Medina’s The Streets of Manila.[2]

Asking the question “Just who is F. Tañedo?” led me to writing a paper about the hero to whom the main street of the city was named.[3]  In the process of my research, Dr. Lino Dizon gave me a treasure—a copy of an old article by Tarlac micro (local) historian Vicente Catu published in The Monitor on 4 February 1973.

In “How Tarlac Streets Got Their Names,” Catu enumerated the national and provincial heroes which are honored in poblacion street names.  I will reprint his article in italics and annotate or add a thing or two to the data that he presented to update it for this write-up.

F. Tañedo Street.  Photo by Xiao Chua.

F. Tañedo Street. Photo by Xiao Chua.

F. TAÑEDO STREET (the poblacion main road) named after Gen. Francisco Tañedo, a native son of Tarlac, who died a martyr’s death at the hands of Spanish soldiers on charges of underground activities during the Philippine Revolution.  Hailing from the pioneer clan of Tarlac town, Don Kikoy was elected lieutenant for the colonial government in 1889 and served for two years.  He co-founded the first masonic lodge in Tarlac, the Logia Filipino Gran Nacional Orient, and was one of the leaders of the Katipunan in the province (Tarlac being one of the first eight provinces to revolt against Spain in 1896).  A conflict with a guardia civil led to his arrest, and when he refused to implicate fellow revolutionaries and mason, he was tortured to death.  According to letters found by Dr. Lino Dizon, his death was the reason why Makabulos continued to fight the Spaniards despite Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo’s surrender at Biak-na-Bato.

ANCHETA STREET (fronting the Alice theater) named after local hero Francisco (sic – Candido) Ancheta of Tarlac, Tarlac.

C. SANTOS STREET (fronting the Rural Bank of Tarlac) named after revolutionary leader Ciriaco Santos, the father of Don Joaquin Santos and grandfather of …Hilario Santos.

HILARIO STREET (fronting Ramos Hospital) is named after revolutionary leader Procopio Hilario Sr., and father of the late Procopio Hilario Jr., of Tarlac, Tarlac.  Procopio Hilario was the brother of Don Tiburcio Hilario, the brains of the revolution in Pampanga.  He married F. Tañedo’s sister Carmen.  Together with his brother-in-law, Francisco Macabulos, Candido Ancheta and Ciriaco Santos, they spearheaded the Philippine Revolution in Tarlac province.  For this, he was executed by the Spaniards.  His son, Procopio Hilario, Jr., became a beloved school teacher described as “very kind, simple and not greedy,”[4] and one of his grandchildren, Socorro Hilario-Timbol, became directress of the Tarlac First Baptist Church School (TFBCS).  I am proud to be his distant relative.

ESPINOSA STREET (fronting KB Sizzlers, near the Tarlac plazuela) is named after Don Porfirio Espinosa, former town president of Tarlac Town (1908-1909).

RIZAL STREET (fronting the Tarlac City Hall) is named after Dr. José Rizal, the national hero, who during his lifetime was a frequent visitor of the Tarlac masons.  On the same street once stood the house of Don Evaristo Puno (municipal president of Tarlac from 1885 to 1886) where Rizal stayed on 27 June 1892.

DEL PILAR STREET (at the back of the Old Tarlac Public Market, fronting Botica Sto. Cristo, Tarlac Ice Plant) is named after Marcelo H. del Pilar, the great reformist.

LUNA STREET (fronting the Sto. Cristo Elementary School) is named after Gen. Antonio Luna, the over-all commander of the Central Luzon Revolutionary Troops – 208,000 men.  It is now more popularly ascribed to the general’s brother Juan Luna, the Philippines’ National Painter whose masterpiece, the Spoliarium, won the gold medal in the Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts in 1884.

MABINI STREET (fronting the Tarlac Electric Plant) is named after Apolinario Mabini, the known Sublime Paralytic and Prime Minister of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo’s Government who never collected salaries in return for his services to the country.

BURGOS STREET (fronting Kentucky Fried Chicken, near the Tarlac plazuela) is named after Father José Burgos, one of the three Filipino priests who were garroted at the Luneta on the dawn of February 17, 1892 on charges of complicity with the Cavite Mutiny.

ZAMORA STREET (fronting Kent Lumber, Iglesia ni Cristo, Tarlac Central Elementary School) named after Fr. Jacinto Zamora, also one of the three priests to have died in the garrote in connection with the Cavite Mutiny.

MACARTHUR HIGHWAY (fronting Metrotown Mall, Siesta) the national highway named after Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in the Pacific Theater of World War II.

ROMULO BOULEVARD (fronting the Tarlac State University, Diwa ng Tarlak) is named after Don Gregorio Romulo, Camiling Municipal President from 1906 to 1907, Governor of the province from 1910 to 1914, and father to the Little Giant, Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, President of the United Nations General Assembly and President of the University of the Philippines, among other things.

AQUINO BOULEVARD (fronting new Tarlac Public Market, Uniwide) reclaimed from the Tarlac dike, it was named after former Tarlac governor and former senator Benigno “Ninoy” S. Aquino, Jr., who became a world icon of resistance against the Marcos dictatorship and died a martyr’s death on 21 August 1983.  Recently, the boulevard was extended from Cut-Cut I to Carangian.

HOSPITAL DRIVE (fronting the Central Luzon’s Doctor’s Hospital) the road leading to the Tarlac Provincial Hospital, the first provincial hospital in the Philippines.  The former University of the Philippines Tarlac Campus is now the site of the delapidated provincial guest house.  Facing it is another hospital, the Central Luzon Doctor’s Hospital.

MACABULOS DRIVE (fronting the Tarlac City Post Office, Development Bank of the Philippines) named after the Liberator of Tarlac Province during the Philippine Revolution, Francisco Macabulos of La Paz town, who continued the struggle despite Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo’s truce with the Spaniards in Biak-na-Bato in 1897.  Another road, the San Vicente Northern Road fronting Camp Macabulos is erroneously ascribed the same name.

The listing here is just preliminary.  Dr. Rodrigo Sicat of the Center for Tarlaqueño Studies had already written extensive papers on the toponyms or the origins of place-names in the province.  I hope other scholars and enthusiasts would expand on what we had written.  Further studies could deal with other street names or place-names or in depth research on the lives and sacrifices of many of our local heroes who just exist to us as trivial street names.


[1]               Mr. Michael Charleston “Xiao” Briones Chua, 29, is currently an Assistant Professor of History at De Sa Salle University and a Ph.D. Anthropology student at the University of the Philippines, Diliman, where he also taught for three years and finished his BA and MA in History.  He is governor-at-large of the Philippine Historical Association and a member of the International Order of the Knights of Rizal.  He appears regularly as historical commentator on national television.  He is a native of Tarlac City.

[2]               Luning B. Ira and Isagani R. Medina, Streets of Manila (Quezon City:  GCF Books, 1977).

[3]               Michael Charleston B. Chua, “F. Tañedo St., P. Hilario St.:  Ang Paglimot at Pag-alala sa mga Bayani ng Himagsikang 1896 sa Tarlac,” in Bernie S. de Vera, Rizal P. Valenzuela and Michael Charleston B. Chua, Dakilang Tarlakin (Quezon City:  Bahay Saliksikan ng Tarlakin, 2007).  Originally submitted to Dr. Jaime B. Veneracion as a paper for Kasaysayan 207 (History of the Philippine Revolution), first semester, 2005-2006 at the University of the Philippine in Diliman.  Presented in the sympoisum “Bulilit Kasaysayan: Mga Pag-aaral Ukol Sa Himagsikan at Mikro-Kasaysayan”, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Maragondon, Cavite, 6 October 2005.

[4]               Bor De Jesus, Interview, 18 September 2005.

TARLAC, TARLAC: Capital of the Philippine Republic, 1899 (To Celebrate Tarlac City Fiesta, 20 January 2013)

Published by Tarlac Star Monitor:  http://tarlacstarmonitor.com/tarlac-star-monitor-vol-5-no-5/tarlac-tarlac-capital-of-the-philippine-republic-1899-to-celebrate-tarlac-city-fiesta-20-january-2012/

The Tarlac Church, site of the 1899 Philippine Revolutionary Congress (Lino Dizon Collection http://www.oocities.org/balen_net/cabecera.htm)

 TARLAC, TARLAC:  Capital of the Philippine Republic, 1899[1] 

Michael Charleston “Xiao” B. Chua[2] 

Department of History, De La Salle University Manila

I grew up in a time when television news reporting in the Philippines was Manila-centric and I felt that our province was insignificant, despite a Tarlaqueño president, because it was rarely cited in TV Patrol and I even felt that when Ernie Baron gives the thypoon warnings, all Central Luzon provinces would be warned but not even Tarlac has a storm signal.  Even history textbooks seldom mention significant events in Tarlac despite it being one of the first eight provinces who joined the Philippine Revolution in 1896.

Years later as a student of history, while doing research at the UP Main Library, I stumbled over a very old booklet by a Tarlac school teacher, Mrs. Aquilina de Santos entitled Tarlak’s Historic Heritage.[3]  It outlines the legacy of the province in the national history, specifically when it became seat of the Philippine Republic under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo from 21 June to 12 November, 1899.  I also read the scholarly work of our foremost historian Lino Dizon on the Tarlac Revolutionary Congress.[4]   In their writings, and other historical documents I learned that if there was TV Patrol back then, Tarlac could have dominated the news because as capital of the republic, a few significant things happened here that our national textbooks seem to reduce in a sentence or a footnote.

After the fall of Aguinaldo’s capital, Malolos, Bulacan, to the Americans, the Philippine Revolutionary Congress reconvened on 14 July 1899.  Seats for provinces not represented have to be filled in by Luzon people, a number of them Tarlaqueños, such as:  Don Jose Espinosa (Tayabas), Servillano Aquino (Samar), Marciano Barrera and Luis Navarro (Leyte), Alfonso Ramos (Palaos Islands), Capt. Lazaro Tañedo (Zamboanga), Gavino Calma (Romblon), and Francisco Makabulos (Cebu).

The Altar-Mayor of the Tarlac Cathedral with the prominent statue of Apung Basti (San Sebastian). 1930s. (Lino Dizon Collection http://www.oocities.org/balen_net/cabecera.htm)

 

Ten days after the convening of the Congress, an article appeared in the revolutionary paper La Independencia criticizing the Tarlac Revolutionary Congress.  The article entitled “Algo Para Congreso” (Something for Congress), signed by PARALITICO, pointed out that the Congress was a failure.  No less than Apolinario Mabini, Sublime Paralytic and Brains of the Revolution, wrote the article in Rosales, Pangasinan on 19 July 1899.  He pointed out that the Congress, as convened in Tarlac, was not even a representative of the people; that the elections for Congress should not have been held because the Aguinaldo government was fighting a war; and that a declaration of principles is much more suitable in a revolution instead of using a constitution copied from French and South American Republics, which were made in times of peace.

Yet, despite Mabini’s criticism and the Philippine-American War at the background, the Congress enacted laws.  By doing so, according to University of the Philippines constitutional historian Sulpicio Guevarra, they “marvelously succeeded in producing order out of chaos.”  The Tarlac Revolutionary Congress convened in San Sebastian Cathedral in Tarlac, Tarlac.  This humble sanctuary became a witness to the First Philippine Republic realizing its fullest potential as a government, despite limiting circumstances.

Some significant decrees issued in Tarlac were the prescription of fees for civil and canonical marriages (28 June), the prohibition of merchant vessels flying the American flag from territories held by the Philippine Republic (24 July), the provision for the registration of foreigners (31 July), the organization of the Supreme Court and the inferior courts (15 September), and the promulgation of the General Orders of the Army (12 November).  The latter was even issued a day after the fall of the Aguinaldo government.

Another one of the early decrees of Aguinaldo in Tarlac was that on the establishment of the Bureau of Paper Money, 30 June 1899.  In the printing press of Zacarias Fajardo the first paper money were printed—the one peso denomination, followed later by the five-peso denomination.   Paper bills of two, five and twenty pesos were also printed.  For the coins, a maestranza or mint was established on the building of the Smith, Bell, & Co., at a property owned by Don Mauricio Ilagan in Gerona, Tarlac.

Another one of the early decrees of Aguinaldo in Tarlac was the clemency granted to the Spanish prisoners who defended the Baler Church, 30 June 1899.  Fifty Spanish soldiers, popularly known in Spain as “Los Ultimos de Filipinos,” made their last stand inside Baler Church.  Filipinos held constant siege of the church, yet despite deaths, diseases, starvation and loneliness, the Spaniards held out for 337 days.  On 2 June 1899, the 33 surviving Spanish troops surrendered, Filipinos received them shouting, “Amigos, amigos!”  Aguinaldo recognized the bravery of these men, and decreed that they should not be treated as enemies but as brothers.  They were issued safe conduct passes and were allowed to go back to their Madre España.  The event, which manifested the bravery of the Spaniards, the benevolence of the Filipinos, and the enduring friendship between two sovereign nations more than a former colonizer and colonized, is being celebrated today as Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day on the date of the Aguinaldo Proclamation from Tarlac.

Not only was the Philippine Republic the first democratic republic in Asia, we also had the first Filipino University in Tarlac.  The Philippine Revolution of 1896 interrupted the schooling of most young Filipinos, many of them working in the Philippine government.  This can be attributed as the reason why education was top priority by the First Philippine Republic despite the fact that the times were difficult.  As mandated in a decree dated 19 October 1898, the Universidad Cientifico-Literaria de Filipinas (Scientific and Literary University of the Philippines) was established in Malolos, Bulacan.  When Malolos fell to the Americans, the schools have to close down.  As mandated in a decree dated 9 August 1899, the university, together with the Burgos Institute (secondary school), was re-established in Tarlac.  The Tarlac Convent beside the San Sebastian Cathedral was used as the school building.  But because of the hostilities around Tarlac, all these plans were disrupted once again.  On 29 September 1899, the first and last graduation rites for the Literary University were held, the diplomas signed by Aguinaldo himself.

On 23 September 1899, the Imprenta Nacional (owned by Tarlaqueño Zacarias Fajardo) came out with the booklet Reseña Veridica de la Revolucion Filipina with Emilio Aguinaldo as its titular author.  An English version, the True Version of the Philippine Revolution, was also published translated by Marciano Rivera and corrected by a certain Mr. Duncan, probably for American readers.  Aside from being the very first work on the Philippine Revolution ever published, the work also condemned the atrocities of American expeditionary forces in the Philippines.  For Carlos P. Romulo, this added significance to an already important work because it presaged My Lai and other atrocities committed by American Forces during the Vietnam War by over half a century.

On 23 October 1899, the ex-communicated Filipino priest, Fr. Gregorio Aglipay, convened the Filipino clergy in Paniqui, Tarlac (the site is now part of Anao town) to affirm their common struggle against the Archbishop of Manila, Bernardino Nozaleda, and their common stand that the Holy See in the Vatican should recognize their petitions.  They came out with the Constitutiones Provisionales de la Iglesia Filipina(Provisional Ordinances of the Philippine Church), which “provided temporary regulations for the church in the Philippines due to the exigencies of war.”  This gave the impression that the document is a constitution for a new church.  Some even mistake the event as the founding of the new church, which, by this time, was still yet to happen until Aglipay and Isabelo de los Reyes would severe their ties from Rome and establish the Iglesia Filipina Independiente commonly known as the Aglipayan Church.

Tarlac is the terrain where so many battles were fought between the Philippine Army and the superior American Forces.  Yet despite the war that was being fought, it was socially alive during the brief stint there of the First Philippine Republic.  Fiestas and dinners drew crowds.  One such function happened on 2 November 1899, a formal banquet was held at the Teatro de Tarlac hosted by the Asamblea de Mujeresspearheaded by the president’s wife, First Lady Hilaria del Rosario Aguinaldo.

But these would all be over in days time.  By 11 November 1899, Gen. Arthur Macarthur was entering Tarlac Province.  But the Filipinos won’t let him through without a fight.  The 300 to 400 troops under the command of Gen. Makabulos, backed-up by Gen. Servillano Aquino’s brigade, tried to stop the Americans along the Bamban-Concepcion road.  But Macarthur’s 3,000 strong army was too much for them.  When night came, the Americans already had Bamban, Capas and Concepcion.

The next day, Gen. Macarthur and his troops entered Tarlac town, drenched in rain.  They have captured the seat of government, but Aguinaldo and his men were nowhere in sight.  They had fled.  In a few days, the Philippine Army would be disbanded.  For Nick Joaquin, this was the collapse of the Filipino nation, “The Republic had fallen.”

The Philippine Republic in Tarlac was not a mere footnote in history, for in that brief stint of the Aguinaldo government in the province, so many things were tried to be accomplished despite the limiting circumstances of the war.  Economic and educational institutions were raised up to be the foundation of government.  In Tarlac, the republic showed the world that we Filipinos could govern ourselves at that early stage.  Tarlac, therefore, is as historically significant as Malolos, Bulacan.  It is part of the story of our development as a nation, and our government as it is today.

Xiao Chua in front of Apung Basti at the Tarlac Cathedral, November 2011

 

Therefore, it is vital that young Tarlaqueños, as future leaders of our province, should be made aware of their own historic heritage.  As much as they learn the history of our country, our continent and our world in schools, so must be that they learn their province’s local history. To know our past is to know ourselves.  It tells us who we are, how we were and how did we become what we are today.  It also gives us a sense of direction for the future.  Screw people who think that life is all about the money; history gives us a sense of pride, and a sense of identity, that in no way we would feel the emptiness of non-belonging.

[1]               Expurgated and edited version of an undergraduate paper, “A FOOTNOTE IN HISTORY, Tarlac: Seat of Government of the Philippine Republic, 1899,” originally for Kasaysayan (History) 111 under Dr. Ricardo Trota José in the University of the the Philippines at Diliman.  Presented at  the 4th Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day Conference Workshop at the Aurora State College of Technology (ASCOT), Baler, Aurora on 29 July 2006.  It was published as a commentary in the third issue (December 2005) of Alaya:  The Kapampangan Resesarch Journal of The Juan D. Nepomuceno Center for Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University, Angeles City.

[2]               Mr. Xiao Chua, 29, is currently an Assistant Professor at the De La Salle University Manila and Ph.D. Anthropology student at the University of the Philippines, Diliman, where he also finished his MA and BA in History.  He is a native of Tarlac City.

[3]               Mrs. Aquilina de Santos, Tarlak’s Historic Heritage (Manila:  Benipayo Press & Photo-Engravers, 1933).

[4]               Lino Lenon Dizon, Francisco Makabulos Soliman:  A Biographical Study of a Local Revolutionary Hero (Tarlac:  Center for Tarlaqueño Studies, 1994); Tarlac And The Revolutionary Landscape (Tarlac:  Center For Tarlaqueño Studies, Tarlac State University/Holy Cross College, 1997); “The Tarlac Revolutionary Congress” in The Tarlac Revolutionary Congress of July 14, 1899:  A Centennial Commemoration (Tarlac City:  Center for Tarlaqueño Studies, Tarlac State University, 1999);  “The Philippine Revolutionary Government, from Malolos to Bayambang (1898-1899)” in Kasaysayan:  Journal of the National Historical Institute, Volume 1, No. 4, Decdember 2001, pp. 1-15.

XIAOTIME, 18 January 2013: KALAYAAN, Ang Dyaryo ng Katipunan

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment earlier, 18 January 2013, at News@1 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Emilio Jacinto, editor ng Kalayaan.

Emilio Jacinto, editor ng Kalayaan.

18 January 2013, Friday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8M3nHro2lo

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  29 years ago bukas, January 19, 1984, isinilang si Tarlac City si Michael Charleston B. Chua, huh??? Who’s that Pokémon???  Ako pala yun??? So happy birthday to me?

Baby Michael, 1984.

Baby Michael, 1984.

Sa mga taong hanggang ngayon wala pang New Year’s resolution na babaguhin sa taong 2013, may suggestion ako.  Ano pa kayang pinakamagandang batis ng aral para sa pagbabago kundi ang ipinamana sa atin ng ating mga bayani?  116 years ago ngayong araw, January 18, 1896, sinimulang ilathala ng rebolusyunaryong kilusan ni Andres Bonifacio, ang Katipunan, ang pahayagang Kalayaan.  2,000 kopya ang inilabas at nagtagal ang pag-imprenta hanggang Marso!  Imagine!  Ito ang una at huling labas nito sa pamamatnugot ni 20 years old pa lamang noon na si Emilio Jacinto.  Si Pio Valenzuela na isa sa tatlong pangunahing pinuno ng Katipunan ang nagmungkahi na upang linlangin ang mga Espanyol:  Kunwari si Marcelo H. del Pilar ang editor at kunwari sa Yokohama, Japan ito inimprenta.  Ngunit sa totoo lang, nilathala lamang ito sa imprenta sa Maynila nina Candido Iban and Francisco del Castillo, na kanilang binili sa panalo nila sa loterya sa Australia.  Nakalagay sa dyaryong Kalayaan ang ilang mga artikulo na isinulat mismo nina Valenzuela na nagtago sa pangalang Madlang-Away at Jacinto na nagtago sa pangalang Dimas-Ilaw.  Maging ang mga sulatin at tula ni Andres Bonifacio sa pangalang Agap-ito Bagumbayan.  Mula 300 kasapi, sinasabing lumaki ang kasapian ng Katipunan hanggang 30,000 na kasapi dahil sa lamang sa nag-iisang labas ng dyaryong ito.

Unang pahina ng limbag na edisyon ng Kartilya ng Katipunan.  Mula sa pribadong koleksyon ni Emmanuel Encarnacion.

Unang pahina ng limbag na edisyon ng Kartilya ng Katipunan. Mula sa pribadong koleksyon ni Emmanuel Encarnacion.

Ang editor nito na si Emilio Jacinto ang siya ring sumulat ng 13 batas ng Katipunan, ang Kartilya.  Mamili na kayo nang pwedeng i-New Year’s resolution:

(I) Ang kabuhayang hindi ginugugol sa isang malaki at banal na kadahilanan ay kahoy na walang lilim, kundi man damong makamandag.

(IV) Maitim man o maputi ang kulay ng balat, lahat ng tao’y magkakapantay; mangyayaring ang isa’y higtan sa dunong, sa yaman, sa ganda; ngunit di mahihigtan sa pagkatao.

(VI) Sa taong may hiya, salita’y panunumpa.

(VII) Huwag mong sayangin ang panahon; ang yamang nawala’y mangyayaring magbalik; ngunit panahong nagdaan na’y di na muli pang magdadaan.

(IX) Ang taong matalino’y ang may pag-iingat sa bawat sasabihin; at matutong ipaglihim ang dapat ipaglihim.

(XI) Ang babae ay huwag mong tingnang isang bagay na libangan lamang, kundi isang katuwang at karamay sa mga kahirapan nitong kabuhayan.

(XII) Ang di mo ibig gawin sa asawa mo, anak at kapatid, ay huwag mong gagawin sa asawa, anak at kapatid ng iba.

Ayon kay Jacinto, kapag daw tinupad ang mga aral na ito, sisikat raw ang araw ng kalayaan sa atin na nangagkakaisang magkakalahi at magkakapatid at sasabugan tayo ng matamis na ligayang walang katapusan.  Ang mga ginugol raw nilang buhay, pagod at tiniis na hirap ay labis nang matutumbasan.  Ang Kartilya pala ang best new year’s resolution natin.  Hindi lang tayo nagbabago, tinutumbasan pa natin ang sakripisyo ng ating mga bayani.  Sa kabila ng ating mga kahinaan, huwag tayong magpapigil na paggawa ng mabuti para sa bayan at sa ating kapwa, para sa Katipunan ito ang tunay na pagmamahal sa Diyos.  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

(Fairlane Subd., Tarlac City; at McDo Philcoa, 28 December 2012)

XIAOTIME, 7 January 2013: TANDANG SORA, Ina ng Katipunan, Ina ng Bayan

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment earlier, 7 January 2013, at News@1 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Aktwal na larawan ni Melchora Aquino, a.k.a. Melchora Aquino.  Reyna Elena siya noon, o di ba?  ANG GANDA NG LOLAH MO!

Aktwal na larawan ni Melchora Aquino, a.k.a. Melchora Aquino. Reyna Elena siya noon, o di ba? ANG GANDA NG LOLAH MO!

7 January 2013, Monday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-G__onpN74

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  Maligayang kaarawan noong Biyernes sa aking mahal na ito na si Charlemagne John Chua, Kok-Chin for short, na madalas akong suportahan sa pamamagitan ng panonood ng lahat ng aking TV interviews.  Salamat sa suporta tito.  Noong isang linggo rin, sa huling araw ng taong 2012, sumakabilang buhay naman ang Heswitang pari na si Padre James Reuter, S. J. sa edad na 96.

Fr. James Reuter, S.J.

Fr. James Reuter, S.J.

Kilala natin siya bilang nakatatanda na naging masigasig sa pagpapakalat ng mabuting balita ng Katolisismo sa pamamagitan ng teatro at media.  Gayundin, nakibaka rin siya laban sa diktadura at nagkaroon ng malaking papel sa People Power Revolution noong 1986 bilang tagapag-ugnay ng mga rebelde sa pamamagitan ng radyo.  Kahit na Amerikano, pinili na maging Pilipino at sumama sa bayan upang maglingkod.  Kahapon naman ang 201 taong kaarawan ng isa pang bayaning nakatatanda.  January 6, 2013, isinilang sa Banlat, ngayon ay Lungsod Quezon si Melchora Aquino.  Huh?  Who’s that Pokemon???  Siya ba yung nanay ni Rizal??? Hindi po.

Likhang-sining sa dating libingan ni Tandang Sora.  Gawa ni Florante “Boy” Beltran Caedo.  Nasa Himalayang Pilipino sa Lungsod Quezon.

Likhang-sining sa dating libingan ni Tandang Sora. Gawa ni Florante “Boy” Beltran Caedo. Nasa Himalayang Pilipino sa Lungsod Quezon.

Si Melchora Aquino ang bayaning mas kilala natin bilang si Tandang Sora, anak ng mayamang mga magsasaka.  Si Melchora habang lumalaki ay laging naiimbita upang maging Reyna Elena ng Santacruzan na kadalasan kinatatampukan ng pinakamaganda sa isang lugar, malambing magsalita, mahilig umawit, at palakiabigan nag-oorganisa ng mga pabasa ng Pasyon ni Hesukristo tuwing mahal na araw.  Pinakasalan niya si Fulgencio Ramos na naging cabesa de barangay, kaya nakilala na rin siya sa tawag na Kabesang Melchora.  Ngunit maagang nabalo at naiwan sa kanya ang pag-aalaga sa anim na anak at ang mga negosyo at bukirin ng asawa.   Noong Agosto 1896, 84 taong gulang na siya at nag-eenjoy sa bunga ng kanyang kasipagan, sumiklab ang himagsikan ng Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan kung saan kasama ang kanyang anak na si Juan.  Hindi pinagkait ang tahanan mga reboluyunaryo.  Ipinabukas ang kamalig ng kanyang maraming palay, nagpakatay ng mga hayup at ipinakain sa mga tao.

Unang Bugso ng Himagsikan sa obra ni Rody Herrera na nagwagi ng ikalawang gantimpala sa 1963 Bonifacio Centennial National Art Contest (Nasa City Hall ng Lungsod ng Maynila).

Unang Bugso ng Himagsikan sa obra ni Rody Herrera na nagwagi ng ikalawang gantimpala sa 1963 Bonifacio Centennial National Art Contest (Nasa City Hall ng Lungsod ng Maynila).

Noong August 24, 1896, ang limang daang tao noong nakaraang araw ay nadagdagan at naging isang libo!!!  At doon sa kanyang bahay sa Sitio Gulod, Barrio Banlat, hinalal ang Supremo Andres Bonifacio na Pangulo ng Pamahalaang Rebolusyunaryo at sinimulan na ang himagsikan.  Malapit sa kaniyang tahanan, napaatras ni Bonifacio ang pwersa ni Tinyente Ros na isang Espanyol.  Sa payo ng Supremo, tumakas at tinahak sa maulang panahon ang daan patungong Novaliches ngunit sa Pasong Putik sa nasabing lugar siya ay naaresto, kinulong ng magdamag sa bahay ng kabesa, at di naglaon ay ikinulong ang matanda sa Bilibid.  Ipinatapon siya sa Guam at nakabalik na lamang noong 1903, sa edad na 91.  Tinanggihan niya ang alok na bayad sa kanya ng mga Amerikano dahil sa kanyang pagsisilbi sa himagsikan.  Noong February 20, 1919, ang Ina ng Katipunan, ang Ina ng Bayan, ay namahinga na sa gulang na 107.

Mausoleo delos Veteranos de la Revolution sa Cementerio del Norte, La Loma, Lungsod ng Maynila.  Unang pinaglibingan kay Tandang Sora.  Kuha ni Dennis Villegas.

Mausoleo delos Veteranos de la Revolution sa Cementerio del Norte, La Loma, Lungsod ng Maynila. Unang pinaglibingan kay Tandang Sora. Kuha ni Dennis Villegas.

Inilibing siya sa La Loma Cemetery, matapos sa Himlayang Pilipino, at noong nakaraang taon para sa kanyang bicentenary inilipat ang kanyang mga labi sa Tandang Sora Shrine sa kanyang tahanan sa Lungsod Quezon.

Ang paglilipat sa bangkay ni Tandang Sora noong isang taon, Enero 2012 mula sa Himlayang Pilipino.

Ang paglilipat sa bangkay ni Tandang Sora noong isang taon, Enero 2012 mula sa Himlayang Pilipino.  Kuha ng Philippine Daily Inquirer.

Simple lang ang aral ng buhay nina Padre Reuter at Tandang Sora, mga lolo at lolang bayani, na walang pinipiling edad ang pagmamahal sa bayan.  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

(Pook Amorsolo, UP Diliman, 4 January 2013)

Ang bagong libingan ni Tandang Sora sa Banlat.

Ang bagong libingan ni Tandang Sora sa Banlat.

XIAOTIME, 28 December 2012: ANG KABAYANIHAN NI DR. JOSÉ RIZAL

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment yesterday, 28 December 2012, at News@1 and News@6 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Ang buong larawan ng pagbaril kay Rizal sa Luneta de Bagumbayan (Ngayon ay Rizal Park) noong December 30, 1896.

Ang buong larawan ng pagbaril kay Rizal sa Luneta de Bagumbayan (Ngayon ay Rizal Park) noong December 30, 1896.

28 December 2012, Friday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1YG4ICvjPc

Para sa mas maraming larawan tingnan ang:  http://xiaochua.wordpress.com/2012/12/25/the-last-days-of-jose-rizal-a-timeline-of-his-last-arrest-incarceration-execution-and-the-journey-of-his-remains/

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  100 years ago sa linggo, December 30, 1912, nang muling ilibing ang ating National Hero na si José Rizal.  Ang National Historical Commission of the Philippines at kami sa Order of the Knights of Rizal ang mangunguna sa muling pagsasadula ng paglilibing kay Rizal sa Luneta sa madaling araw hanggang umaga ng Linggo, lumahok po tayo.

155870_497451520299116_492942504_n

Gayundin, 116 years ago sa nasabi ring araw, December 30, 1896, nang barilin si Rizal.  Para sa mga napatunayang taksil sa Espanya na katulad ni Rizal, sila ay binabaril nang nakatalikod, upang sa kanilang pagbagsak ay susubsob ang mukha nila sa lupa, isang kamatayang walang dangal.  Ngunit, ayon sa kwento sa atin, upang maiwasan ito, bago tamaan ng bala, humarap si Rizal sa mga punglo at bumagsak.  Ayon sa ilang historyador, mali ito.  Huh??? Liwanagin natin.  Tila mas maganda ang totoong mga nangyari.  6:30 ng umaga nang simulan ni Rizal at ng mga kasama ang paglakad patungo sa Luneta de Bagumbayan.  Sabi ni Floro Quibuyen, na mas pinili ni Rizal ang lumakad kaysa sumakay sa karwahe dahil sa paglalakad ay nagbubuo ang drama.  Sinuot din niya ang pinakamaganda niyang kasuotan at nagsumbrero pa.  Kasama niya ang mga dating guro sa Ateneo na sina Padre Vilaclara at Padre March na kanya pang binibiro.  Hindi sila tumatawa.  Kasama si Padre Federico Faura na guro ni Rizal, ang dalawang Heswita na ito ay mamamatay lahat sa loob ng isang taon lamang.  Habang naglalakad sa tabing dagat sinabi pa ni Rizal, “Kayganda ng umaga, sa mga umagang ganito, lumalakad ako noon dito kasama ang aking sinta.”

Aktwal na larawan ng pagdating ni Rizal sa Luneta de Bagumbayan.

Aktwal na larawan ng pagdating ni Rizal sa Luneta de Bagumbayan.

Pagdating niya sa lugar ng pagbabarilan, ilang metro mula sa kung nasaan ang monumento ngayon, kanyang hiniling sa kapitan na huwag siyang barilin ng nakatalikod sapagkat hindi siya isang taksil.  Tumanggi ang kapitan sa hiling na ito, bagama’t hindi na siya pinaluhod at hindi na nilagyan ng piring tulad ng ginagawa sa ibang binibitay.  Binilin na lang niya na barilin siya sa likod malapit sa puso.  Isang doktor na Espanyol ang kumuha ng kanyang pulso.  Normal ito.  Hindi siya takot mamatay.  Alas siyete tres ng umaga.  Sumigaw ang kapitan, “Preparado.”  Ikinasa ang mga baril ng walong indiong sundalo, sa likuran nila, walong Espanyol na babaril sa kanila kung hindi nila paputukan si Rizal.  “Apunten,” itinutok ang mga baril at sa eksaktong tagpong ito, kinuha ang larawan na ito at makikita na relax na relax na nakatayo ang ating National Hero.  Sumigaw siya ng “Consummatum est!”  Tapos na ang kanyang misyon, ipinasa na niya sa bayan ang sulo.  Binagsak ng kapitan ang kanyang espada at sumigaw ng “Fuego!”  Pumutok ang mga baril.  At si Rizal, na isang gymnast at may alam sa Physics, nang tamaan ng mga bala malapit sa likod malapit sa puso ay ginamit ang pwersa ng mga ito upang umikot at bumagsak ng nakatingin sa langit!  Namatay ng may dangal.  Sumigaw ang mga Espanyol, “Viva España!  Muerte de los Traidores!”  Patay na ang numero unong kalaban ng Imperyong Espanyol.

Detalye ng pabalat ng pansentenaryong edisyon ng THE FIRST FILIPINO ni Leon Ma. Guerrero na nagpapakita ng nakatumbang letrang "I" na kumatawan sa patay na Rizal na nag-alay ng dugo para sa pagbubuo ng bansa.

Detalye ng pabalat ng pansentenaryong edisyon ng THE FIRST FILIPINO ni Leon Ma. Guerrero na nagpapakita ng nakatumbang letrang “I” na kumatawan sa patay na Rizal na nag-alay ng dugo para sa pagbubuo ng bansa.

Ngunit sa kanyang pagkamatay, nabigyang buhay ang diwa at inspirasyon ng marami na lumaban sa mga mananakop.  At nagwagi ang ating himagsikan laban sa Espanya matapos ang dalawang taon!  Si Rizal ay marangal, ang mga Anak ng Bayan ay marangal, tayo ay mga Pilipino, tayo ay marangal.  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

(PTV, 19 December 2012)

XIAOTIME, 26 December 2012: ANG PASKO NG MGA BAYANI SA KASAYSAYAN

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment earlier, 26 December 2012, at News@1 and News@6 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Rizal habang nagsusulat sa loob ng kanyang kulungan sa Fort Santiago.  Estatwang wax ni Guillermo Tolentino.  Dambanang Rizal sa Fort Santiago, Pambansang Komisyong Pangkasaysayan ng Pilipinas.

Rizal habang nagsusulat sa loob ng kanyang kulungan sa Fort Santiago. Estatwang wax ni Guillermo Tolentino. Dambanang Rizal sa Fort Santiago, Pambansang Komisyong Pangkasaysayan ng Pilipinas.

26 December 2012, Wednesday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBmQe-yPb0I

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  Binabati po si Ate Gie Averia, regular na manonood ng News@1 at News@6 mula sa Vigan, para sa kanyang kaarawan noong isang linggo.  Sa kanyang pangalawang nobela na El Filibusterismo, pinansin ni Dr. José Rizal na bagama’t sinasabing ang pasko ay para sa mga bata, ang mga bata ay maaaring hindi naman natutuwa dito.

Mula sa Philippine Almanac ng Filway

Mula sa Philippine Almanac ng Filway

Pinagbibihis ng mga bagong damit at sapatos upang pawisan at pagtyagaan ang ritwal ng misa, at kapag marumihan ang kanilang damit, ay mapapagalitan at makukurot lamang.  Matapos nito ay papupuntahin daw ang mga bata sa iba’t ibang bahay, magmano sa mga nakatatanda at gagawin ang pinagagawa sa kanila—kumanta, sumayaw, at gumawa ng mga nakatutuwang bagay.  Kung hindi nila gawin ito mapapagalitan at makukurot lamang sila.  Bibigyan sila ng pera ngunit kukunin lang naman ito ng kanilang mga magulang at hindi na ibabalik sa kanila.  Ano ang nakukuha nila sa pasko, mga pasa ng pangungurot, at masakit na tiyan sa sobrang pagkain ng mga keyk? Para sa kanya, “baptism of fire,” Hanep talaga si Rizal, tila isang anthropologist na tahimik palang pinagmamasdan ang mga bata tuwing pasko, o hindi kaya sarili niyang karanasan ito noong bata pa siya?  Anuman, sinasabing ang pinakamalungkot na pasko niya ay nangyari 116years ago, December 25, 1896.  Nakakulong si Rizal sa Fort Santiago, malayo sa piling ng mga mahal sa buhay, mga magulang at sa mahal niyang si Josephine dahil sa kanyang pagmamahal sa bayan.  Pinaghahandaan ang kanyang depensa sa isang paglilitis kinabukasan na malamang sa malamang ay magpapataw sa kanya ng parusang kamatayan.

Teodora Alonso sa kanyang katandaan.

Teodora Alonso sa kanyang katandaan.

Nang ipataw sa kanya ang sentensya sa salang rebelyon, sedisyon at pagtatag ng ilegal na organisasyon tulad ng La Liga Filipina at Katipunan noong December 29, 1896, sinasabing nagdala ng sulat ang kanyang inang si Doña Teodora Alonso sa Malacañan at sa hagdan ng palasyo ay nagsumamo sa Gobernador Heneral Camilo de Polavieja na huwag patayin ang kanyang anak.

Gobernador Heneral Camilo G. de Polavieja

Gobernador Heneral Camilo G. de Polavieja

Kaya sinimulan ni Pangulong Manuel Quezon ang pag-akyat sa mga hagdan ng palasyo sa unang araw ng isang president ng Pilipinas, kumbaga upang ibawi ang nangyari kay Doña Teodora, kung saan aakyat na ang Pilipino sa palasyo ng taas no at hindi alipin.

Manuel Quezon na umaakyat ng taas noo sa mga hagdan ng Palasyo ng Malacanan bilang pangulo ng Pilipinas, 15 November 1935.

Manuel Quezon na umaakyat ng taas noo sa mga hagdan ng Palasyo ng Malacanan bilang pangulo ng Pilipinas, 15 November 1935.

Noong mga panahon na iyon, nagpapasko sa larangan ng labanan ang mga kasapi ng Katipunan.

At Alangan River, The Last Stand (Limay, Bataan)41363_1446144466847_7433404_n

Noong 1941, ang mga lolo at lola natin na beterano ay nagsisimula nang lumaban noon sa mga mananakop na Hapones, Disyembre kasi nang magsimula ang digmaan sa Pilipinas.

Ang pagkabulbos ng Maynila noong Liberasyon bilang ikalawang pinakagumuhong Allied na lungsod sa diagdig noong Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig, Marso 1945.  Mula sa kolkesyon ni Dr. Luis Camara Dery.

Ang pagkabulbos ng Maynila noong Liberasyon bilang ikalawang pinakagumuhong Allied na lungsod sa diagdig noong Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig, Marso 1945. Mula sa kolkesyon ni Dr. Luis Camara Dery.

Noong Marso 1945, matapos mapulbos ang Maynila at maging second most destroyed Allied city in the world, nakita ng kompositor na si Felipe de Leon ang pagkawasak at isinulat ang isa sa pinakamagandang awiting pamasko sa Pilipinas, ang “Payapang Daigidig”:  “Payapang panahon / Ay diwa ng buhay / Biyaya ng Diyos / Sa sangkatauhan / Ang gabi’y payapa / Lahat ay tahimik / Pati mga tala / Sa bughaw na langit.”

Felipe de Leon

Felipe de Leon

Ang mga maliligayang pasko at mapapayapang gabi natin at ng ating mga anak ay hindi lamang biyaya ng Diyos, kundi dulot din ng mga Paskong isinakripisyo ng ating mga bayani.  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

(Lulan ng fx taxi, Maynila, 19 December 2012)

THE LAST DAYS OF JOSÉ RIZAL: A Timeline of His Last Arrest, Incarceration, Execution and the Journey of His Remains

Rizal, painted by Juan Luna

Rizal, painted by Juan Luna

Compiled by Prof. Sir Michael Charleston “Xiao” B. Chua, K.O.R. Deputy Commander, Order of the Knights of Rizal, Sucesos Chapter

This brief timeline was prepared by a historian for the commemoration of the centenary of the transfer of José Rizal’s remains to its present burial site at the Rizal Park which will be re-enacted by the Order of the Knights of Rizal on 30 December 2012.  This timeline was featured at ABS-CBN News.com http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/12/10/12/last-days-rizal, at the Bagumbayan (The official newsletter of the Order of the Knights of Rizal) and at the souvenir program of the recently concluded 50th National Rizal Youth Leadership Institute.  Special thanks to Sir Choy Arnaldo for encouraging me to make this timeline.

6 October 1896, 3:00 AM:  On his 4th day of being held in his cabin at the MV Isla de Panay docked at Barcelona, Spain on his way to Cuba, Rizal was awakened to be brought to Montjuich Prison in Barcelona, Spain.

6 October, 2:00 PM:  Interview with General Eulogio Despujol

Eulogio Despujol.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Eulogio Despujol. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

6 October, 8:00 PM:  Aboard the Colon, Rizal left Barcelona for Manila.

3 November:  Rizal was brought to Fort Santiago, where other patriots, including his brother Paciano, were being tortured to implicate him. Paciano refused to sign anything despite being his body broken and his left hand crushed.

The only photo of Paciano Rizal, a stolen shot.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

The only photo of Paciano Rizal, a stolen shot. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

20 November:  Preliminary investigation began with Rizal appearing before Judge Advocate Colonel Francisco Olive.  The investigation lasted five days.

26 November:  The records of the case were handed over to Governor General Ramon Blanco who then appointed Captain Rafael Dominguez as special Judge Advocate.

Detail from "Governor Ramon Blanco and his Troops" by Felix Martinez, 1895.  National Art Gallery, National Museum of the Philippines.

Detail from “Governor Ramon Blanco and his Troops” by Felix Martinez, 1895. National Art Gallery, National Museum of the Philippines.

8 December:  From a list submitted to him by the authorities, he chose the brother of his friend, Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade to become his trial lawyer.  He was only made to choose among army officers and not a civilian lawyer.

Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

11 December:  In his prison cell, Rizal was read the charges against him:  “principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating the ideas of rebellion.”

13 December:  Ramon Blanco was replaced by Camilo de Polavieja, a more ruthless character, as Governor General of the Philippines.  Dominguez submitted the papers of the Rizal case to Malacañan Palace.

Governor General Camilo G. de Polavieja.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Governor General Camilo G. de Polavieja. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

15 December:  Rizal issued his manifesto to certain Filipinos calling to end the “absurd” rebellion and to fight for liberties with education as a prerequisite.  The authorities supressed the manifesto.

25 December:  Rizal’s saddest Christmas, away from family and friends.

Rizal's cell from 3 November to 29 December 1896.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Rizal’s cell from 3 November to 29 December 1896. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

26 December, 8:00 AM:  Trial of Rizal began at the Cuartel de España.  On the same day, the court-martial secretly and unanimously voted for a guilty verdict with the penalty of death before a firing squad.

Cuartel de Espana, used to be at the present site of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Cuartel de Espana, used to be at the present site of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

28 December:  Polavieja signs the death verdict.

29 December, 6:00 AM:  Rizal was read his verdict by Captain Rafael Dominguez: To be shot the next day at 7:00 AM at the Luneta de Bagumbayan (Rizal Park).

29 December, 7:00 AM:  Rizal was transferred to the chapel cell adorned by religious images to convince him to go back to the Catholic fold.  His first visitors were Jesuit priests Fathers Miguel Saderra Mata and Luis Viza.

29 December, 7:15 AM:  After Fr. Saderra left, Rizal asked Fr. Viza for the Sacred Heart statuette which he carved when he was an Ateneo student.  From his pocket the statuette appears.

29 December, 8:00 AM:  Fr. Viza was relieved by Fr. Antonio Rosell who joined Rizal for breakfast.  Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade joins them.

29 December, 9:00 AM:  Fr. Federico Faura, who once said that Rizal would lose his head for writing the Noli Me Tangere, arrived.  Rizal told him, “Father you are indeed a prophet.”

29 December, 10:00 AM:  Fathers José Vilaclara and Vicente Balaguer visisted Rizal, followed by a Spanish journalist, Santiago Mataix of El Heraldo de Madrid, for an interview.

29 December, 12:00-3:30 PM:  Rizal’s time alone in his cell.  He had lunch, wrote letters and probably wrote his last poem of 14 stanzas which he wrote in his flowing handwriting in a very small piece of paper.  He hid it inside his alcohol stove.  The untitled poem was later known as Mi Ultimo Adios (My Last Farewell).  In its second stanza, he already praised the revolutionaries in the battlefield for giving their lives “without doubt, without gloom.”

First page of the "Mi Ultimo Adios" in Rizal's own handwriting

First page of the “Mi Ultimo Adios” in Rizal’s own handwriting

29 December, 3:30 PM:   Fr. Balaguer visits again and, according to him, talks to Rizal about retracting his anti-Catholic writings and his being a mason.

Rizal Writing His Farewell Letter by B. Gonzales.  Rizal Shrine in Fort Santiago, National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

Rizal Writing His Farewell Letter by B. Gonzales. Rizal Shrine in Fort Santiago, National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

Rizal's alcohol burner, a gift from the Pardo de Taveras where he hid his last poem.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Rizal’s alcohol burner, a gift from the Pardo de Taveras where he hid his last poem. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

29 December, 4:00 PM:  Visit of Rizal’s mother, Teodora Alonso.  Then Rizal’s sister Trinidad entered to get her mother and Rizal whispered to her in English referring to the alcohol stove, “There is something inside.”  They were also accompanied by Narcisa, Lucia, Josefa, Maria and son Mauricio Cruz.  Leoncio Lopez Rizal, Narcisa’s eleven-year-old son, was not allowed to enter the cell.  While leaving for their carriages, an official handed over the alcohol stove to Narcisa.  After their visit, Fathers Vilaclara and Estanislao March returned to the cell followed by Father Rosell.

Teodora Alonso, the matriarch of the Rizal clan, with her daughters and grandchildren.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Teodora Alonso, the matriarch of the Rizal clan, with her daughters and grandchildren. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

29 December, 6:00 PM:  Rizal was visited by the Dean of the Manila Cathedral, Don Silvino Lopez Tuñon.  Fathers Balaguer and March left Father Vilaclara to be with the two.

29 December, 8:00 PM:  Rizal’s last supper where he informed Captain Dominguez that he already forgave those who condemned him.

29 December, 9:30 PM:  Rizal was visited by the fiscal of the Royal Audiencia of Manila, Don Gaspar Cestaño with whom Rizal offered the best chair of the cell.  According to accounts, the fiscal left with “a good impression of Rizal’s intelligence and noble character.”

30 December, 3:00 AM:  According to Father Balaguer’s account, Rizal asked to have confession, hear mass and be given Holy Communion.  Allegedly he also signed the document retracting his anti-Catholic writings and his membership in masonry.  This series of events is still a contentious issue among Rizal experts.

The so-called Rizal retraction

The so-called Rizal retraction

30 December, 5:30 AM:  Rizal took his last meal.  According to stories told to Narcisa by Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade, Rizal threw some eggs in the corner of a cell for the “poor rats,” “Let them have their fiesta too.”  Rizal also wrote to his family and to his brother.

30 December, 5:30 AM:  Teary-eyed Josephine Bracken and Josefa Rizal came.   Josephine was gifted by Rizal with the classic Thomas á Kempis book Imitations of Christ in which he inscribed, “To my dear and unhappy wife, Josephine, December 30th, 1896, Jose Rizal.”  They embraced for the last time.

Josephine Bracken at 18. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Josephine Bracken at 18. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

wedding_gift

30 December, 6:00 AM:  Rizal wrote his father, Francisco Mercado “My beloved Father, Pardon me for the pain with which I repay you for sorrows and sacrifices for my education.  I did not want nor did I prefer it.  Goodbye, Father, goodbye… Jose Rizal.”  To his mother, he had only these words, “To my very dear Mother, Sra. Dña Teodora Alonso 6 o’clock in the morning, December 30, 1896.  Jose Rizal.”

30 December, 6:30 AM:  Death march from Fort Santiago to Bagumbayan begins.  4 soldiers with bayoneted rifles lead the procession followed by Rizal, Taviel de Andrade, Fathers Vilaclara and March and other soldiers.  They passed by the Intramuros plaza, then turned right to the Postigo gate then left at Malecon, the bayside road now known as Bonifacio Drive.

The Last Walk from Fort Santiago.  National Historical Commission of the Philippines

The Last Walk from Fort Santiago. National Historical Commission of the Philippines

Retracing Rizal's footsteps in brass at Fort Santiago.  Photo by Xiao Chua

Retracing Rizal’s footsteps in brass at Fort Santiago. Photo by Xiao Chua

Rizal arrives at the execution site.  Rizal Shrine in Calamba, National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

Rizal arrives at the execution site. Rizal Shrine in Calamba, National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

Actual photo of Rizal's arrival at the Luneta, 30 December 1896.

Actual photo of Rizal’s arrival at the Luneta, 30 December 1896.

30 December, 7:00 AM:  Rizal, after arriving on the execution site at the Luneta de Bagumbayan, was checked with his pulse by Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo.  It was perfectly normal.  Rizal once wrote, “I wish to show those who deny us patriotism that we know how to die for our duty and our convictions.”

Actual photo of Rizal's execution, as the soldiers aimed their guns at their relaxed victim.  Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

Actual photo of Rizal’s execution, as the soldiers aimed their guns at their relaxed victim. Courtesy of Vibal Foundation, Inc.

“Preparen.” “Apunten.”  Rizal shouted, “Consummatum est.”  It is done.

30 December, 7:03 AM:  With the captain shouting “Fuego!”  Shouts rang out from the guns of eight indio soldiers.  Rizal, being a convicted criminal was not facing the firing squad.  As he was hit, he resists and turns himself to face his executors. He falls down, and dies facing the sky.

"Fuego!" Detail from a mural by Carlos "Botong" Francisco at the Rizal Shrine at Fort Santiago, National Historical Commission  of the Philippines.

“Fuego!” Detail from a mural by Carlos “Botong” Francisco at the Rizal Shrine at Fort Santiago, National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

“Viva España!  Muerte a los traidores!”

But in two years, the victorious Philippine revolutionaries will seal the fate of the Spanish Empire in the east.  Three hundred thirty three years of Spanish Colonialism ended in 1898.

Bonifacio, Father of the Filipino Nation and Initiator of the Philippine Revolution.  Detail from the mural "History of Manila" by Carlos "Botong" Francisco at the Manila City Hall.

Bonifacio, Father of the Filipino Nation and Initiator of the Philippine Revolution. Detail from the mural “History of Manila” by Carlos “Botong” Francisco at the Manila City Hall.

30 December 1896, afternoon:  Narcisa, after a long search, discovered where her brother’s body was secretly buried, at the old unused Paco Cemetery.  She asked the guards to place a marble plaque designed by Doroteo Ongjungco containing Rizal’s initials in reverse—“RPJ.”

Rizal's grave at Paco Park.  From the exhibit for the Rizal Sesquicentennial International Conference at the University of the Philippines.

Rizal’s grave at Paco Park. From the exhibit for the Rizal Sesquicentennial International Conference at the University of the Philippines.

Rizal's cranium.  Photo courtesy of Dr. Ambeth R. Ocampo

Rizal’s cranium. Photo courtesy of Dr. Ambeth R. Ocampo

17 August 1898:  Four days after the Mock Battle of Manila when the Americans took over the city, the remains of Rizal where exhumed.  They were brought to Narcisa’s house, washed and cleansed and were placed in an ivory urn designed by Romualdo Teodoro de Jesus.  The urn stayed there until 1912.

Teodora Alonso shows visitors Rizal's skull from the urn.  Photo courtesy of Dr. Ambeth R. Ocampo

Teodora Alonso shows visitors Rizal’s skull from the urn. Photo courtesy of Dr. Ambeth R. Ocampo

Rizal's urn.  Photo courtesy of Dr. Vic Torres.

Rizal’s urn. Photo courtesy of Dr. Vic Torres.

29 December 1912:  From Estraude Street in Binondo, Manila, the urn was transferred in a procession headed by the masons and the Knights of Rizal to the marble hall of the Ayuntamiento de Manila, where it stayed overnight with the Knights on guard.

Knights of Rizal guarding the urn at the Marble Hall of the Ayuntamiento de Manila.  Note the masonic symbol amidst the flowers and the initials CR meaning Caballeros de Rizal (Knights of Rizal).  Courtesy of In Excelsis by Felice Prudente Sta, Maria.

Knights of Rizal guarding the urn at the Marble Hall of the Ayuntamiento de Manila. Note the masonic symbol amidst the flowers and the initials CR meaning Caballeros de Rizal (Knights of Rizal). Courtesy of In Excelsis by Felice Prudente Sta, Maria.

30 December 1912, morning:  In a solemn procession, the urn began its last journey to Rizal’s final resting place the base of the soon-to-rise national monument to José Rizal.

Knights of Rizal in solemn procession in the only decent burial Rizal will have, 30 December 1912.

Knights of Rizal in solemn procession in the only decent burial Rizal will have, 30 December 1912.

30 December 1913:  The Rizal National Monument at the Luneta was inaugurated.  Its original design name was “Motto Stella” (Guiding Star) and was made by Swiss sculptor Dr. Richard Kissling who earlier also made the National Monument to William Tell, the National Hero of Switzerland.

"Motto Stella" by Dr. Richard Kissling.  From Austin Craig.

“Motto Stella” by Dr. Richard Kissling. From Austin Craig.

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30 December 2012:  The transfer of the remains of Rizal from Binondo to the site of the Rizal Monument was recreated one hundred years later by the Order of the Knights of Rizal and the National Historical Commission of the Philippines in commemoration of Rizal’s 116th Martyrdom Anniversary.

XIAOTIME, 19 December 2012: HENRY WARE LAWTON, Pinagmulan ng Pangalan ng Plaza Lawton

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment yesterday, 19 December 2012, at News@1 and News@6 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Plaza Lawton ilang dekada na ang nakararaan.  Mula sa koleksyon ng larawan ni Dr. Vic Torres.

Plaza Lawton ilang dekada na ang nakararaan. Mula sa koleksyon ng larawan ni Dr. Vic Torres.

19 December 2012, Wednesday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGfdg_6pW5o

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  Sa Maynila po, ang lugar sa harapan ng neo-classical na post office building ay tinatawag ngayon na Liwasang Bonifacio, naging larangan ng pakikibaka at kilos-protesta simula noong panahon ng diktadura.  Ngunit kilala pa rin ito sa dating pangalan nito.  Ang Plaza Lawton.  Ipinangalan ito ng mga mananakop na Amerikano sa karangalan ng kanilang bayaning si Heneral Henry Ware Lawton.  Lawton??? Huh??? Who’s that Pokemón???

Henry Ware Lawton

Henry Ware Lawton

Isang respetadong sundalong Amerikano na nagsilbi noong kanilang Civil War, noong Apache Wars, Spanish-American War at Philippine-American War.  Sumikat siya nang matugis niya ang matapang na pinuno ng mga Apache Indians na si Gerónimo noong 1886.

Lider Apache na si Gerónimo

Lider Apache na si Gerónimo

Sabi ni Gerónimo, napagod daw sila sa makulit na kakahabol ng mga kawal ni Lawton.  Ngunit ang magaling na heneral na Amerikano ay makakahanap lang pala ng katapat sa Pilipinas!  113 years ago ngayong araw, December 19, 1899, nakipaglaban siya sa mga pwersa ng Republika ng Pilipinas sa San Mateo, Morong, ngayon ay Rizal.  Sa labanang ito, nabaril siya ng isang sharpshooter na sa malaking biro ng tadhana ay nasa ilalim ng heneral na ang pangalan din ay Gerónimo!

Hen. Licerio Gerónimo

Hen. Licerio Gerónimo

Si Hen. Licerio Gerónimo ng Sampaloc!  Si Lawton ang tanging heneral na Amerikano na nasawi sa kanilang pakikidigmang Pilipino-Amerikano.  Si Heneral Licerio Gerónimo naman, sumuko sa mga Amerikano nang mahuli si Heneral Emilio Aguinaldo at naging bahagi ng Philippine Constabulary na nagpasuko ng mga rebolusyunaryo at naging responsable sa pagkagapi at pagkamatay ni Heneral Luciano San Miguel, isang bayani ng Katipunan.  Sa kabila nito, hindi na mabubura ang papel ni Heneral Licerio Gerónimo at ng kanyang mga kawal na inilarawan ni Heneral Lawton sa kanyang report bago ito mamatay, “Taking into account the disadvantages they have to fight against in terms of arms, equipment and military discipline, without artillery, short of ammunition, powder inferior, shells reloaded until they are defective, they are the bravest men I have ever seen…”  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

(Quirino, Manila, 13 December 2012)

Si Lawton habang nangangabayo.  Obra mestra mula sa California Military Museum.

Si Lawton habang nangangabayo. Obra mestra mula sa California Military Museum.

XIAOTIME, 18 December 2012: GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA AT ANG PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT

Broadcast of Xiaotime news segment last Tuesday, 18 December 2012, at News@1 and News@6 of PTV 4, simulcast over Radyo ng Bayan DZRB 738 khz AM:

Graciano Lopez-Jaena

Graciano Lopez-Jaena

18 December 2012, Tuesday:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cY10ILzSqI4

Makasaysayang araw po, it’s Xiaotime!  156 years ago ngayong araw, December 18, 1856, isinilang sa Jaro, Iloilo ang dakilang orador ng Kilusang Propaganda at unang editor ng pahayagang La Solidaridad na si Graciano Lopez Jaena.

Rizal, M.H. del Pilar at Mariano Ponce

Rizal, M.H. del Pilar at Mariano Ponce

Kasama niya sa Kilusang Propaganda ang iba pang mga bayani natin na katulad nina José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Juan at Antonio Luna, Isabelo de los Reyes, José Ma. Basa, José Ma. Panganiban, Antonio Ma. Regidor, Ariston Bautista Lin, at marami pang iba.  Hindi ba’t kapag sinabing propaganda, negatibo ang naiisip natin, ngunit sa pakahulugan nila noon ito ay pangangampanya para sa reporma sa ilalim ng kolonyalismong Espanyol.

Grupo ng mga propagandista sa Espanya, hanapin niyo nga si Rizal at si del Pilar?

Grupo ng mga propagandista sa Espanya, hanapin niyo nga si Rizal at si del Pilar?

Ang kanilang layunin ay ang pagpapatalsik sa mga fraile, pagiging lalawigan ng Espanya ng Pilipinas, at pagkakaroon ng representacíon ng Pilipinas sa Cortes o Senado ng Espanya, walang kinalaman kay Rez, lalo na kay Anne.  Huh?  E gusto pala nila tayong maging mamamayan ng Espanya???  E kung ganoon, paano nangyari na mga national heroes pa rin natin ang mga ito kung hindi naman nila isinulong ang pagiging “nation” natin???

Father John Schumacher kasama si Xiao.

Father John Schumacher kasama si Xiao.

Ayon sa Heswitang Historian na si Fr. John Schumacher sa kanyang aklat na The Propaganda Movement, makikita na ang Hispanisasyon ay isa lamang hakbang upang sa kalaunan, mapayapang hihiwalay ang Pilipinas sa Espanya.  Ayos naman pala.  Nangampanya sila laban sa pagpapadala ng Arsobispo ng Maynila sa mga Igorot at mga Moro upang ieksibit na parang mga hayup sa zoo sa Exposicion General de las Islas Filipinas sa Madrid, kung saan namatay sa pulmunya ang babaeng Muslim na si Basalia noong 1887.  Bilang propagandista sinulat ni Rizal ang kanyang nobelang Noli Me Tangere at iba pang mga sulatin.

Mga simbolo ng masoneriya.  Larawan mula sa Kasaysayan:  The Story of the Filipino People.

Mga simbolo ng masoneriya. Larawan mula sa Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People.

Lumahok sila sa masoneriya at sumapi sa Lodge Solidaridad, na kaiba sa paninira ng mga prayle na ito ay isang anti-Kristong organisasyon, isa lamang itong brotherhood o fraternity na tinatanggap ang lahat ng relihiyon.  Namayagpag sila sa buong Dekada 1880s at sa huling taon nito itinatag nila ang dyaryong La Solidaridad, isang demokratikong kinsenaryo o forthnightly, ibig sabihin, lumalabas sa bawat kinsenas o every 15 days.

Super liwanag na scan ng La Solidaridad mula sa koleksyon ng larawan ni Dr. Vic Torres.

Super liwanag na scan ng La Solidaridad mula sa koleksyon ng larawan ni Dr. Vic Torres.

Ngunit, naging manhid, bingi at bulag ang Espanya sa kanilang mga hinaing.  Nakita na ito ni Rizal noong 1891 kaya bumalik siya ng Pilipinas.  Nagpunyagi pa sina del Pilar at Jaena, naglimbag ng La Solidaridad hanggang maghirap, nagpupulot na lamang ng upos ng sigarilyo sa kalsada at mga basurahan, hihithitin ang mga ito upang makalimutan ang kanilang gutom, nagsara ito noong 1895.  Namatay sa sakit na tuberculosis kapwa sina Jaena at del Pilar noong 1896 sa Espanya.  Si del Pilar mismo ay nagnais nang magplano ng isang armadong rebolusyon.  Nabigo man ang Kilusang Propaganda, hindi matutumbasan ang kanilang mga pagsisikap para sa bayan, mga pagsisikap na hindi kinalimutan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, dinakila si del Pilar bilang ghost editor ng pahayagan ng Katipunan, ang Kalayaan, ang pangalang “Rizal” naman ay ginawang password ng pinakamataas ng antas ng Katipunan, ang “Bayani.”  Nang hindi na umubra ang santong dasalan ng mga ilustradong may kaisipang kanluranin, kinailangan na rin daanin sa santong paspasan ng mga Anak ng Bayan.  Ako po si Xiao Chua para sa Telebisyon ng Bayan, and that was Xiaotime.

(Pook Amorsolo, UP Diliman, 8 November 2012)

Marcelo H. del Pilar bilang patnugot ng La Solidaridad.  Mga dibuho mula sa Adarna Publishing House.

Marcelo H. del Pilar bilang patnugot ng La Solidaridad. Mga dibuho mula sa Adarna Publishing House.

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